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ദുരന്തങ്ങൾ, അത്യാഹിതങ്ങൾ: പ്രതികരണങ്ങളുടെ മനഃശാസ്ത്രം

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നിരത്തുകളിൽ നിരന്തരം കാണുന്ന വാഹനാപകടങ്ങൾ നമ്മുടെ ശ്രദ്ധയാകർഷിക്കുന്നത് എന്തുകൊണ്ട്? കൂട്ടിയിടിച്ച വാഹനങ്ങൾ റോഡിന്റെ വശങ്ങളിൽ ആണെങ്കിലും, കടന്നു പോകുന്ന വാഹനങ്ങൾക്ക് തടസ്സം സൃഷ്ട്ടിക്കുന്നില്ലെങ്കിലും നാം വാഹനം മന്ദഗതിയിലാക്കുകയും അപകടം നിരീക്ഷിക്കുകയും ചെയ്യും. ഏതൊരാളും ചെയ്യുന്ന കാര്യമാണിത്.

കലാപങ്ങളും പ്രകൃതി ദുരന്ത വാർത്തകളും ദിനേന വാർത്താ മാധ്യമങ്ങളിലൂടെ കാണുന്ന നമുക്ക് എന്ത് കൊണ്ടാവും അത് സൂക്ഷ്മമായി വീക്ഷിക്കാൻ തോന്നുന്നത്? ‘കണ്ണേ മടങ്ങുക’ എന്ന പ്രയോഗം കർമത്തിൽ വരുത്താനാകാത്തത്? ദൈനംദിന ദുരന്ത വാർത്തകൾ നമ്മുടെ മാനസികാരോഗ്യത്തിന് ഹാനികരമാകുന്നത് തടയാൻ എന്തുചെയ്യണമെന്നും, വിനാശ വാർത്തകളും മരണവും സാകൂതം ശ്രദ്ധിക്കുന്നതിന്റെ കാരണവുമന്വേഷിക്കുകയാണിവിടെ.

മനുഷ്യ മസ്തിഷ്‌കം ദുരന്തങ്ങളോട് എങ്ങനെ പ്രതികരിക്കുന്നു

അത്യാഹിതങ്ങൾ ശ്രദ്ധയിൽ പെടുമ്പോൾ നമ്മുടെ തലച്ചോറിന് എന്ത് സംഭവിക്കും? ഡോക്ടർ ഓൺ ഡിമാൻഡിലെ ക്ലിനിക്കൽ സൈക്കോളജിസ്റ്റ് ഡോ. ജോൺ മേയർ പറയുന്നതനുസരിച്ച്, ഇത്തരം സന്ദർഭങ്ങളിൽ അതിജീവനത്തെക്കുറിച്ച സഹജാവബോധം മസ്തിഷ്ക്കം ഉത്തേജിപ്പിക്കുകയും, മനുഷ്യനെ തന്റെ നിലനില്പിനെക്കുറിച്ച് ചിന്തിക്കാൻ പ്രേരിപ്പിക്കുകയും ചെയ്യുന്നു.

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“പ്രകൃതി ദുരന്തങ്ങൾ ആയാലും, വാഹനാപകടമോ, വിമാന ദുരന്തമോ ഏതുമാകട്ടെ, അവ ആദ്യം പ്രവേശിക്കുന്നത് മനുഷ്യന്റെ അവബോധത്തിലേക്കാണ്. അത്യാപത്തുകളെക്കുറിച്ചുള്ള വാർത്തകൾ കാണുന്നതും വായിക്കുന്നതും സമാന പ്രതീതി തന്നെയാണുണ്ടാക്കുന്നത്”, എന്ന് ജോൺ മേയർ നിരീക്ഷിക്കുന്നു.

ഇന്ദ്രിയഗോചരമായ ഇത്തരം അനുഭവങ്ങൾ ഡാറ്റകളായി മസ്തിഷ്കത്തിനകത്ത് പ്രവേശിക്കുകയും അമിഗ്ഡാലയെ (Amygdala) (വികാരങ്ങൾ, അതിജീവന തന്ത്രങ്ങൾ, ഓർമ്മ എന്നിവക്ക് ഉത്തരവാദിയായ തലച്ചോറിന്റെ ഭാഗം) ഉത്തേജിപ്പിക്കുകയും ചെയ്യുന്നു. ഡാറ്റ വിശകലനം ചെയ്യുന്നതിലും വ്യാഖ്യാനിക്കുന്നതിലും ഏർപ്പെട്ടിരിക്കുന്ന ഫ്രന്റൽ കോർട്ടക്സിന്റെ (Frontal Cortex) പ്രദേശങ്ങളിലേക്ക് അമിഗ്ഡാല സിഗ്നലുകൾ അയയ്ക്കുന്നു. ഇങ്ങനെ ലഭിച്ച ദുരന്തത്തെക്കുറിച്ചുള്ള അവബോധം നമുക്ക് ഭീഷണിയാണോ എന്ന് മസ്തിഷ്ക്കം വിലയിരുത്തുകയും തത്ഫലമായി ‘പോരാട്ടം അല്ലെങ്കിൽ രക്ഷപ്പെടൽ’ (Fight or Flight Response) എന്ന സ്വഭാവത്തിൽ പ്രതികരണം ആവിഷ്‌കരിക്കുകയും ചെയ്യുന്നു.

അമേരിക്കൻ സൈക്കോളജിക്കൽ അസോസിയേഷൻ പ്രസിദ്ധീകരിച്ച ഒരു പഠനത്തിൽ, നമ്മൾ പോസിറ്റീവ് അനുഭവങ്ങളേക്കാൾ നെഗറ്റീവ് അനുഭവങ്ങളോട് കൂടുതൽ പ്രതികരിക്കുന്നു എന്ന് കണ്ടെത്തിയിട്ടുണ്ട്. മനുഷ്യൻ മോശം അനുഭവങ്ങളോടും, നെഗറ്റീവ് പൊട്ടെൻസിയോടും കൂടുതൽ പ്രവണത കാണിക്കുന്ന ജീവിയാണ്. അതിനാൽ തന്നെ നല്ല വാർത്തകളേക്കാൾ മോശം വാർത്തകളിലേക്കും ദുരന്തങ്ങളിലേക്കും മനുഷ്യ മനസ്സ് യാന്ത്രികമായി ശ്രദ്ധ കേന്ദ്രീകരിക്കുന്നു.

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മനശാസ്ത്രപരമായി നെഗറ്റീവ് സംഭവങ്ങൾ നമ്മുടെ തലച്ചോറിനെ കൂടുതൽ സജീവമാക്കുന്നു. ഒരു പോസിറ്റീവ് സംഭവവുമായി താരതമ്യപ്പെടുത്തുമ്പോൾ, എന്തെങ്കിലും അത്യാഹിതം സംഭവിക്കുമ്പോൾ അനുഭവപ്പെടുന്ന ഉയർന്ന മാനസിക ഉത്തേജനത്തെ നെഗറ്റീവ് പൊട്ടെൻസി (Negative Potency) എന്നാണ് വിളിക്കുന്നത്.

ഗുണവും ദോഷവും

ദുരന്തങ്ങൾ നേരിട്ട് കാണുന്നതും അതിനെ കൈകാര്യം ചെയ്യാനായി ഇടപെടുകയും ചെയ്യുന്നത് മാനസികമായും പ്രയോജനകരമാണെന്നാണ് ശാസ്ത്രം പറയുന്നത്. “ദുരന്തങ്ങൾ നേരിട്ട് കാണുന്നത് ജീവിതത്തിലെ ബുദ്ധിമുട്ടുകൾ നേരിടാൻ സഹായിക്കുകയും നമ്മുടെ സഹാനുഭൂതിയെ ഉത്തേജിപ്പിക്കുകയും ചെയ്യുന്നു. മനുഷ്യനെ ഒരു സാമൂഹിക ജീവിയാക്കി മാറ്റുന്നതിൽ ഇത്തരം മനശാസ്ത്രപരമായ പ്രക്രിയകളും പ്രവർത്തിക്കുന്നു” ഡോക്ടർ മേയർ പറയുന്നു.

കാഴ്ചക്കാരന് ദുരന്തത്തിന്റെ ഇരകളോട് കൂടുതൽ സാമ്യമുണ്ടാകുമ്പോൾ ഉത്കണ്ഠ, ഭയം, വിനാശകരമായ ആഘാതം, ശാരീരിക അസ്വസ്ഥതകൾ, അസുഖങ്ങൾ എന്നിവ അനുഭവപ്പെടാനും ദൈനംദിന ശാരീരിക പ്രവർത്തനങ്ങളെ അത് ബാധിക്കാനും കാരണമുണ്ടെന്നു ഡോക്ടർ കാർ വിശദീകരിക്കുന്നുണ്ട്. നമ്മോട് ബന്ധപ്പെടുത്താൻ കഴിയുന്ന മനുഷ്യരോടുള്ള സഹാനുഭൂതി കാരണമാണിത് സംഭവിക്കുന്നത്. ഇതിന് തെളിവായി അമേരിക്കൻ സൈക്കോളജിക്കൽ അസോസിയേഷൻ പ്രസിദ്ധീകരിച്ച ഒരു പഠനത്തിൽ, ആഫ്രിക്കയിൽ എബോള പൊട്ടിപ്പുറപ്പെട്ട സമയത്ത്, ആഫ്രിക്കൻ വംശജർ കൂടുതൽ അധിവസിക്കുന്ന പ്രദേശങ്ങളിലുള്ളവർ അങ്ങനെയല്ലാത്തിടങ്ങളെ അപേക്ഷിച്ചു ഉത്കണ്ഠയുടെ ലക്ഷണങ്ങൾ അനുഭവിച്ചതായി കണ്ടെത്തി.

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ദുരന്തങ്ങൾ നമ്മെ നേരിട്ട് ബാധിച്ചിട്ടില്ലെങ്കിലും വാർത്തകളിൽ വ്യാപകമായി പ്രചരിക്കുന്ന അത്യാഹിതങ്ങൾ ആവർത്തിച്ച് കാണുന്നത് മാനസികാരോഗ്യത്തെയും ശരീരത്തെയും പ്രതികൂലമായി ബാധിക്കുമെന്ന് തെളിയിക്കപ്പെട്ടിട്ടുണ്ട്. സെപ്തംബർ 11 ആക്രമണത്തിന് ശേഷം ജേണൽ ഓഫ് ആൻക്സയ്റ്റി ഡിസോർ‌ഡേഴ്സ് (The Journal of Anxiety Disorders) 166 കുട്ടികളുടെയും 84 അമ്മമാരുടെയും ടെലിവിഷൻ കാഴ്ച ശീലങ്ങൾ പഠനവിധേയമാക്കുകയുണ്ടായി. ആക്രമണത്തെ തുടർന്നുള്ള ദിവസങ്ങളിൽ 68 ശതമാനം അമ്മമാരും 48 ശതമാനം കുട്ടികളും കൂടുതൽ സമയം ടെലിവിഷൻ കണ്ടതായും ഈ വർദ്ധനവ് PTSD (Post-traumatic stress disorder) ലക്ഷണങ്ങൾക്ക് കാരണമായതായും ഈ പഠനം കണ്ടെത്തി.

ക്രിയാത്മക പ്രതികരണം

അത്യാഹിതങ്ങൾ എപ്പോൾ എവിടെ എങ്ങനെ ഉണ്ടാകുമെന്നോ നമ്മെ എങ്ങനെയൊക്കെ ബാധിക്കാമെന്നോ ആർക്കും മുൻകൂട്ടി പ്രവചിക്കാൻ സാധ്യമല്ല. എങ്കിലും അവയുടെ അനന്തരഫലങ്ങളിൽ നിന്ന് മനസ്സിനെ വ്യതിചലിപ്പിക്കാൻ മാർഗങ്ങൾ കണ്ടത്തേണ്ടതുണ്ട്. ഡോ. കാർ പറയുന്നു, “നിങ്ങളുടെ സുരക്ഷയിലും മറ്റുള്ളവരുടെ ക്ഷേമത്തിലും നിങ്ങൾക്ക് കുറച്ച് നിയന്ത്രണമുണ്ടെന്ന് ഓർമ്മിക്കുക. മനസ്സാന്നിധ്യം തിരിച്ച് പിടിക്കാനുള്ള വഴികൾ തേടുക. ദുരന്തത്തിന്റെ ഇരകളെയോ ഇരകളെ സഹായിക്കുന്നവരെയോ നേരിട്ട് സഹായിക്കുക. അമിതമായ ഉത്കണ്ഠയും വിഷാദവും ഇത്തരം ക്രിയാത്മക ഇടപെടലുകളിലൂടെ കുറക്കാൻ സാധിക്കും.”

അപകടങ്ങളുടെ വ്യാപ്തി വലുതാകുമ്പോൾ ദൃശ്യ മാധ്യമങ്ങൾ അതിലേക്ക് കൂടുതൽ ശ്രദ്ധ തിരിക്കുന്നത് സ്വാഭാവികമാണ്. തുടർച്ചയായ കവറേജുകൾ നമ്മുടെ സ്‌ക്രീനുകൾക്ക് മുന്നിൽ വന്നു നിറയുമ്പോൾ ഇതിൽ നിന്നും ഒരു പരിധി വരെ മാറി നിൽക്കൽ അനിവാര്യമാണ്. “നിങ്ങൾ എത്രത്തോളം ദുരന്ത വാർത്തകൾ കാണും എന്നതിന് ഒരു പരിധി നിശ്ചയിച്ച് സ്വയം പരിചരണം പരിശീലിക്കുക. ഉദാഹരണത്തിന് 60 മിനിറ്റ് തുടർച്ചയായി ദുരന്ത വാർത്തകളിലേക്ക് ടെലിവിഷനിലൂടെ ശ്രദ്ധ കേന്ദ്രീകരിക്കുമ്പോൾ, സോഷ്യൽ മീഡിയയിലൂടെയുള്ള സമാന കാഴ്ചകൾ 30 മിനിറ്റായി കുറക്കുക” ഡോ. കാർ പറയുന്നു.

bylines disaster relief bylines.in
A Red Cross Mozambique volunteer helps to offload bags of seeds in Changanine community, Chibuto district. Various drought resilient seeds (beans,onion,tomatoe,cabbage) were given to this Mozambiquan village which has been hard hit by the drought, forcing many to survive on local berries and seeds (Photo: AurÈlie Marrier díUnienville/IFRC).

ഡോ. മേയർ ഇതിൽ ഒരു പടി കൂടി മുന്നോട്ട് കടന്ന് ദുരന്തങ്ങളെ കുറിച്ച സംഭാഷണങ്ങൾ വരെ കുറക്കാൻ ആവശ്യപ്പെടുന്നു. സുഹൃത്തുക്കളോടും സഹപ്രവർത്തകരോടും തുടർച്ചയായ ഇത്തരം വാർത്തകളെ സ്വാഗതം ചെയ്യുന്നില്ലെന്ന് അറിയിക്കുക. കൂടുതൽ ആളുകളിലേക്ക് എത്തിക്കുന്നതിന് പകരം ഇത്തരം സന്ദർഭങ്ങളിൽ നിര്‍മ്മാണാത്മകമായി എന്ത് ചെയ്യാമെന്നതിനെക്കുറിച്ച ചർച്ചകളാണ് നടക്കേണ്ടത്. പോസിറ്റീവ് ആയ വിഷയങ്ങളിലേക്ക് ശ്രദ്ധ തിരിക്കുകയും ക്രിയാത്മകവും സമ്പുഷ്ടവുമായ സംഭാഷണങ്ങളിൽ ഏർപ്പെട്ട് നമ്മുടെ മാനസികാരോഗ്യത്തെ ശക്തിപ്പെടുത്തുക.

info@bylines.in

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